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Pasiv je vrlo aktivan

Pasiv  je forma koja se koristi kada se ne želi pomenuti subjekat, tj. vršilac radnje, već se želi istaći samo radnja koja je izvršena nad objektom. Glavna stavka pasiva je glagol biti  (to be), koji se menja kroz vremena, posle kog ide prošli particip glavnog glagola.

OBJEKAT + BE + PROŠLI PARTICIP

Dakle, ono što će se menjati, biće oblik glagola biti i to u vremenu u kom je glavni glagol  iz aktivne rečenice.

  • Present Simple

Active: tell(s)                              Harry always tells me the truth.

Passive: am/is/are told             I am always told the truth.

U ovoj rečenici, Harry je subjekat, koji je nepotreban u pasivnoj rečenici. Stoga, rečenicu  počinjemo objektom, glagol će biti u vremenu u kome je glagol u aktivnoj, a finalni,glavni glagol će biti u prošlom participu.

  • Past simple

Active:  told                                Harry always told me the truth.

Passive: was/were told            I was always told the truth.

  • Present perfect

Active: have/has told                      Harry has always told me the truth.

Passive: have/has been told          I have always been told the truth.

  • Past perfect

Active:  had told                                 Harry had always told me the truth.

Passive had been told                        I had always been told the truth.

  • Present continuous

Active: am/is/are telling                    Harry is telling me the truth.

Passive: am/is/are being told            I am being told the truth.

  • Past continuous

Active: was/were telling                        Harry was always telling me the truth.

Passive: was/were being told               I was always being told the truth.

  • Future simple

Active: will tell                                         Harry will always tell me the truth.

Passive: will be told                                I will always be told the truth.

  • Future perfect

Active: will have told                               By tomorrow Harry will have told me the truth.

Passive: will have been told                   By tomorrow  I will have been told the truth.

  • Present perfect continuous

Active: has/have been telling                  Harry has been telling me the truth all the time.

Passive: has/have been being told          I have been being told the truth all the tiime.

U svim pomenutim primerima aktivnih i pasivnih rečenica, crvenom bojom su označeni različiti glagolski oblici glagola biti, plavom prošli particip glavnog glagola.

Izbor između aktivne i pasivne rečenice omogućava nam da istu informaciju predstavimo na različite načine.

Active: The flood damaged the house.                Passive: The house was damaged by the food.

Ova rečenica je o poplavi  i govori o tome           Ova rečenica je o kući i govori o tome šta joj se desilo.   šta je ona uradila.Stoga se poplava smatra         Vršilac radnje je u predloškoj klauzi sa uvodnim by posle vršiocem radnje.                                                       glagola.

Kada koristiti pasiv?

  • Kada je vršilac radnje nepoznat;

The photos were made in the USA.   ( Ne znamo ko je napravio fotografije.)

  • Kada je je vršilac radnje nebitan;

A new school will be built in my neighbourhood. ( Nije nam bitno da pomenemo ko je gradi. )

  • Kada želimo da izbegnemo odgovornost ili smo namerno neprecizni;

Money has been taken. ( Ne govorimo ko je to uradio.)

  • Kada govorimo uopšteno;

Rules are made to be broken. (Ne kaže se ni ko ih je doneo, ni ko ih krši.)

  • Kada se govori o naučnom žanru, formalnim izveštajima i radovima;

America was discovered not many centuries ago. 

  • U formalnom engleskom, posebno u pisanju;

The new computer system is being installed next June.

  • U engleskom se često na početku rečenice navodi stara, tj. poznata informacija, a nova na kraj  rečenice.

Active: The three dresses made for this wedding contained a flaw. The Import Group  in America manufactured the dresses.

Passive: The three dresses made for this wedding contained a flaw. The dresses were manufactured  by the Import Group in America.

  • Često je mnogo prirodnije da se na početku rečenice nađe subjekat, tj. vršilac radnje, ako rečenica sadrži dug izraz, koji će ići na kraju rečenice.

Active: My sister’s decision to give up her studies and move to London surprised me.

Passive: I was surprised by my sister’s decision  to give up her studies and move to London.

Pasivna rečenica je prirodnija i češća nego njena aktivna verzija.

Pasiv se upotrebljava i sa neličnim glagolskim oblicima, kao što su to infinitive i gerund. U tom sličaju obrazac se malo menja.

  • Obrazac za pasiv sa glagolskom imenicom(gerund):

1)     OBJECT+ VERB+ (BE)-ING+ PAST PARTICIPLE

Active: My granny enjoyed looking after me when I was a kid.

Passive: I enjoyed being looked after when I was a kid.

U ovom slučaju se posle objekta nalazi glagol u istom vremenu u kom je i u aktivnoj rečenici. Posle njega se koristi oblik BEING, koga prati prošli particip glagolske imenice iz aktivne rečenice.

Kada uporedimo ove dve rečenice, možemo zaključiti da nemaju isto značenje.

Ovaj obrazac će pratiti i drugi glagoli:  avoid, consider, delay, deny, describe, imagine, remember, resent. To znači da će se posle ovih glagola koristiti  –ing  oblik.

Međutim, ukoliko je aktivna rečenica sledećeg obrasca: VERB+OBJECT+-ING , pasivna rečenica će izgledati malo drugačije.

2)     OBJECT+BE+  PAST PARTICIPLE + -ING

Active: The teacher saw him sending messages in the exam.

Passive: He was seen sending messages in the exam.

Drugi glagoli koji će pratiti ovaj obrazac su: bring, catch, hear, keep, notice, send, show.

  • Obrazac za pasiv sa to infinitive:

OBJECT+ VERB+ TO BE+ PAST PARTICIPLE

Active: Her classmates started to respect her when she got an A in Maths.

Passive: She started to be respected (by her classmates) when she got an A in Maths.

Glagoli koji će pratiti ovaj obrzac su: 1) appear, begin, come, continue, seem, tend;                                                                 

                                                                 2)  agree, aim, attempt, hope, refuse, struggle, try.

Prva grupa glagola ima identično značenje i u aktivu i u pasivu, dok se u drugoj grupi značenje u aktivnoj i pasivnoj rečenici razlikuje.

  • Neki glagoli koji prate obrazac object+to-infinitive u aktivnoj rečenici,nemaju pasivni oblik.

Active: Your boss wanted you to be at the meeting.

Passive: You were wanted to be at the meeting. ( incorrect)

Glagoli koji prai ovaj obrazac su: (can’t ) bear, hate, love, need, prefer, like, wish.

Da nam pomisao na pasiv ne bi bila noćna mora treba da zapamtimo najprostiji obrazac za rešavanje ove nepoznate:

OBJEKAT + BE + PROŠLI PARTICIP 

i nećemo imati problema.

Pasiv u engleskom jeziku

 

PROČITAJTE JOŠ I:

Engleski jezik – osnove

Učenje engleskog jezika

Brzo učenje engleskog jezika

Kako progovoriti engleski jezik tečno

Vremena u engleskom jeziku

Modalni glagoli u engleskom jeziku

Kako da obogatite svoj vokabular

Upotreba pravilnih glagola, prideva i priloga

Učenje prošlog vremena u engleskom

Određeni i neodređeni član

Indirektni govor – Slaganje vremena

Predlozi za vreme i mesto – Prepositions